By Sandra Dawson (auth.)
For scholars who have to increase their realizing of corporations and the folk in them. it's also proper to people who are starting a expert research of agencies, fairly because it is helping to bridge the distance among concept and perform. it really is totally revised and updated.
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Additional info for Analysing Organisations
Third, there is control through the specification of output criteria. Superiors here are less interested in how work is done, so long as goods and services of the required quality , quantity and sequence are produced. There is often little discretion for the job-holder over the specification of these targets, but once specified she may have a great deal of discretion in how to achieve them . The growth of home working , not simply for routine assembly or sewing but also for computer programmers and others who can work 'at a distance ' from their superiors , is a reflection on an increase in the use of output controls (Brocklehurst , 1989).
In summary one can say that attitude change is brought about through exposure to additional information , changes in group affiliations, and enforced changes in behaviour which create dissonance. 1, together with the enduring characteristics of many attitudes, mean that it is often difficult to predict from limited information about people and social contexts where attitude change will occur. 2 Motivation Motivation refers to the mainspring of behaviour; it explains why individuals choose to expend a degree of effort towards achieving particular goals.
An individual's interpretation of job requirements will also be subject to pressure and influence from significant people outside the workplace : for example, one's spouse or fellow members on a committee of a voluntary organisation. A common area of conflict concerns the attendance time requirements associated with jobs. The employer expects commitment to overtime when necessary , whereas family and friends may think this requirement is unreasonable and seek to influence it. 1 Job Requirements: Basic Elements of any Job 1.