Chemistry

Advances in Chemical Physics, Vol.133, Part B. Fractals, by Yuri P. Kalmykov, William T. Coffey, Stuart A. Rice

By Yuri P. Kalmykov, William T. Coffey, Stuart A. Rice

Fractals, Diffusion and rest in Disordered advanced platforms is a distinct guest-edited, two-part quantity of Advances in Chemical Physics that keeps to file fresh advances with major, updated chapters by way of across the world well-known researchers.

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Extra info for Advances in Chemical Physics, Vol.133, Part B. Fractals, Diffusion, and Relaxation (Wiley 2006)

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The simplest generalization of this model is to make each step dependent on the preceding step in such a way that the second moment is hXðtÞ2 i ¼ 2Dt2H ð19Þ where H 6¼ 1/2 corresponds to anomalous diffusion. A value of H < 1/2 is interpreted as an antipersistent process in which case a step in one direction is preferentially followed by a reversal of direction. A value of H > 1/2 is interpreted as a persistent process in which case a step in one direction is preferentially followed by another step in the same direction.

31) yields the autocorrelation coefficient [23] rk  ¼ hXj Xjþk i Àð1 À aÞ 2aÀ1 k % ÀðaÞ hXj2 i Àð1:5 À HÞ 2HÀ2 k ÀðH À 0:5Þ ð34Þ as the lag time increases without limit k ! 1. The probability density function (pdf) for the fractional-difference diffusion process in the continuum limit p(x,t) satisfies the scaling condition pðx; tÞ ¼ 1 x F td td ð35Þ where d ¼ H ¼ a À 1=2. The deviation from ordinary statistical mechanics, and consequently the manifestation of complexity, is indicated by two distinct quantities.

A reduction in variability of breathing reduces the overall efficiency of the respiratory system. Altemeier et al. [30] measured the fractal characteristics of ventilation and determined that not only are local ventilation and perfusion highly correlated, but they scale as well. Finally, Peng et al. [31] analyzed the BRV time series for 40 healthy adults and found that under supine, resting, and spontaneous breathing conditions, the time series scale. ’’ Some particularly long records of breathing were made by Kantelhardt et al.

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