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Extra info for A dictionary of Skiri Pawnee (Studies in the Anthropology of North American Indians)
Dual number for both agent and patient is marked by the prefix si- DU, which precedes the modal prefix [table 12:6]. P + raspii ‘look for’ + -Ø PERF; cp. A + raspii ‘look for’ + -Ø PERF Table 10. ir- rak- rak- ak- AN PATIENT 3 rd raar- INAN ir- . . ak- ak- + raar- AN INDV Possession. Both subject and object possession are marked by either single prefixes or combinations of prefixes. There is a distinction between regular and partitive possession, and between simple subject ownership and actual subject physical possession.
His ‘perfective’ Reduction. A + hak ‘pass by’ + -his PERF + -ta INT Rule 4R. Stem-final Vocalic Reduplication. A + pahaat ‘be red’ + Ø ‘be’; cf. A + huraar‘ground’ + tararit ‘be burned, scorched’ + -Ø ‘be’; cf. iriiratarariitu ‘where it is scorched’ Vowels: Unrestricted Rules Two or more contiguous vowels, either across a morpheme boundary or within a morpheme, contract, except when either of two conditions occurs: (1) the second of two vowels is long, or (2) two vowels are in word-final position or preceding a final consonant.
In the following example the stem is the discontinuous form hiir (uur . ) ‘be good; be good-looking’ and, as with a in the preceding example, the stem base hiir has no independent meaning. A/P + aar ‘do’ + -Ø PERF The preverb ut- is identical in form to the benefactive/dative ut-, and when a verb such as ‘to do’ has a benefactive patient, the benefactive is expressed by the sequence ir . ri . POSS + aar ‘do’ + -Ø Verbs: Classes and Major Constituents There are four major classes of verb stems, each characterized by distinctive inflectional properties: • • • • active verbs, both transitive and intransitive; passive (or stative) verbs,9 which generally describe actions that befall people, who have no control over that action, and so what is interpretively an agent (or subject) pronoun is grammatically a patient (or object) pronoun; descriptive verbs, which in general are the equivalent of adjectives in English–that is, English constructions comprising the copular verb ‘to be’ followed by an adjective; locative verbs, which usually describe a location and are the equivalent of English constructions of the verb ‘to be’ followed by a preposition or prepositional phrase.